History of Bangalore
Origin of Name & History in Brief
The place mentioned as 'Benguluru' in the Ganga record is originally a hamlet, even now called as Halebengaluru near Kodigehalli, not far away from Hebbal. It is said that Kempegowda I, when he built the new capital town in about 1537 called it Bangalore as his mother and wife belonged to the hamlet Bangalore, now called Halebengaluru. In literary works Bangalore is also called Kalyananagara or the 'City Auspicious'.
Though the fort built by Kempegowda then has totally vanished the spots like the Yelahanka Bagilu (Mysore Bank Square), Halsur Bagilu or Gate (now a police station is named after it; the gate proper even now remains hidden in ruined condition behind the Badami House), Anekal Bagilu, and the Kengeri Bagilu or gate(again the name of a police station) etc; are still located together with the Sonde Koppa Bagilu (to the west), Yeshwantpur Gate(near Upparpet police station) and the Kanakanahalli Bagilu(near the Vokkaligara Sangha Bldg. or Sanjay Talkies).
The town was conquered by Bijapur in 1638, and Shahji Bhosle secured the town and its surroundings as a jahgir in 1638. After 50 years of Maratha rule at Bangalore, Bangalore was conquered by the Mughuls in 1686. The city was leased to the Mysore ruler Chikkadevaraya by the Mughuls in c 1689 and Chikkadevaraya expanded the fort to the south and built the Venkataramana temple in this fort area. This new fort in granite was strengthened by Haider who secured Bangalore as jahgir in 1759. The British conquered the place in 1799 after defeating Tipu. Bangalore became "a place of importance" under Haider, says Buchanan, speaking of its trade.
The Cantonment area grew as a separate township after the British shifted their troops to the place in 1806. The present Cantonment also consists of many old villages like Halsur (present Ulsoor), Bagepally, Doddakunte, Byadarahalli Akkithimmanahalli, etc.
Of the four towers set up by Kempegowda II to guard the capital city one is at Halsur(atop a rock), the other three being, one near Lalbagh (again atop a rock), the third on the Kempambudhi bank at Gavipura Guttahalli and the last at Vyalikaval on the Bellary road near the Ramanashrama.
At Domlur on the periphery of the old Cantonment, the Chokkanatha templebuilt by the Cholas still remains. The construction of the St.Marks Cathedral was begun in 1808. The Mosque in the Old Poor House Street in the Cantonment area was also constructed during this time. The Cantonment area saw the construction of some of the beautiful buildings of the European renaissance style, both churches and secular buildings, mostly government offices during the 19th century.
Altitude: 3050 ft. above sea level.
Area: 368 square kilometers.
Population: 6.2 million
Climate: Warm and salubrious throughout the year.
Languages: Kannada, English, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam and Urdu.